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Posts Tagged ‘gangoji’

In addition to the Utamaro paintings I found out about (and blogged about) recently, I have just come across news articles relating a number of other interesting finds in Japan.

(1) The World’s Oldest Timbers in active use, Older than at Hôryû-ji, found at Gangô-ji

The temple of Hôryû-ji in Ikaruga, just outside the city of Nara, is often said to contain (some of?) the oldest wooden structures in the world. Core elements of the pagoda and kondô (main hall; lit. “Golden Hall”) have been dated to the 6th and 7th centuries, respectively, and I suppose it is generally believed or assumed that enough of the rest of these structures (beyond just the core pillars and such) dates back to that time as well that it can be said that the building as a whole, despite later repairs and the like, is that old.

However, the Asahi Shimbun reported a few days ago on the discovery of timbers at Gangô-ji, another temple in the Nara area, which date back earlier than the Hôryûji structures. As usual, the Asahi cannot be trusted to maintain any kind of archive, and the link could stop working at any moment. So, for the sake of posterity, and for the sake of informing the public, I provide the original text and a translation. No claims of authorship or ownership of the original Japanese text are made, and all intellectual property rights belonging to the Asahi Shimbun and the original author (reporter) are acknowledged and recognized.

It may be a small point, but one thing which stands out to me in this article is the fact that these timbers, dated to the 6th century, and installed in a building built in the early 8th century, should be in a place called the “Zen Hall” or “Zen Room”, when Zen did not come to Japan until the 13th century or so.

現役木材、法隆寺より古かった 奈良・元興寺、世界最古
2010年8月14日3時3分

 奈良市中院(ちゅういん)町、元興寺(がんごうじ)(極楽坊)の禅室(国宝)に、飛鳥時代初期の586年ごろに伐採されたヒノキが使われていることが、総合地球環境学研究所(京都市)の光谷拓実(みつたに・たくみ)客員教授(年輪年代学)の調査でわかった。世界で最も古い木造建築とされる法隆寺(7世紀末~8世紀)を約100年さかのぼり、世界最古の「現役」の木造建築部材になる。

 元興寺は国内初の仏教寺院・飛鳥寺(法興寺、奈良県明日香村)を前身とし、平城遷都(710年)に伴って平城京内に移された。奈良時代の718年に建立が始まり、建物は新築とされてきたが、少なくとも禅室は飛鳥寺からの移築だった可能性が高まった。

 禅室は東西26.8メートル、南北12.8メートル、高さ8.4メートルの細長い木造平屋建て。僧侶らの住居「僧坊」として使われ、後世には修行の場を兼ねた。

 光谷教授は奈良文化財研究所の発掘技術研究室長だった2000年、終戦前後の修理で禅室から取り外された部材の年輪を調査し、582年ごろの伐採を示す部材を見つけた。現在使われている部材にも同時代のものがあるとみて、07年にデジタルカメラで屋根裏の部材の年輪などを撮影。年代の判明している年輪データと比較して割り出す年輪年代法に基づき画像をコンピューター解析した。その結果、複数の柱の上部に水平方向に渡した「頭貫(かしらぬき)」で、最も外側の年輪が586年を示した。

 飛鳥寺の正確な建立年は不明で、590年に用材を伐採したことが日本書紀に記されている。飛鳥寺の部材が禅室に再利用されたとみられる。光谷教授は「国内初の寺院の部材がいまだに健在なのは、加工しやすく耐久性に優れたヒノキだったから。日本の木の文化を象徴する建物として、禅室は貴重だ」と話す。 禅室の屋根裏は10月17日~11月13日、1日160人の限定で公開される。申し込みは往復はがきで9月17日必着、先着順。詳しくは元興寺文化財研究所のホームページ(http://www.gangoji.or.jp/)で。(編集委員・小滝ちひろ)

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 〈元興寺〉 蘇我馬子(?~626)が飛鳥地方(奈良県明日香村)に創建した飛鳥寺を、奈良時代に北約22キロの平城京内に移した寺。東大寺などとともに南都七大寺のひとつに数えられる。室町時代に金堂などが焼失、江戸時代には五重塔や観音堂などが焼けた。現在は、本堂と禅室からなる極楽坊と、観音堂の系譜を引く寺院の二つに分かれる。極楽坊は1998年、「古都奈良の文化財」のひとつとして世界遺産に登録された。

A survey performed by Visiting Professor Mitsutani Takumi of the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature in Kyoto has revealed, based largely on the counting of tree rings, that pieces of cypress used in the Zen Hall (a National Treasure) of Gangôji (also known as Gokuraku-bô), which is located in the Chûin neighborhood in the city of Nara, were originally felled in the Asuka period, around the year 586 CE. Dated to roughly 100 years before the construction of Hôryûji (late 7th to early 8th century), the site of the oldest wooden buildings in the world, this would make these timbers the oldest wooden architectural elements in active use (that is, serving a functional purpose within a structure) in the world.

Gangôji was preceded by Asuka-dera (now Hôkô-ji, in Asuka village, Nara pref.), the first Buddhist temple to be built in Japan. [Though the site remained active as a temple, now called Hôkô-ji], along with the moving of the capital in 710, [significant elements of Asuka-dera] were moved to Heijô-kyô [i.e. Nara]. Construction on Gangô-ji began in 718, and though the buildings are acknowledged as having been newly constructed at that time, there is a strong possibility that the Zen Hall at least was moved there from Asuka-dera.

The Zen Hall is a long, narrow wooden one-story building, 26.8 meters from east to west, 12.8 meters from north to south, and 8.4 meters tall. It is used as a monastic residence, and since a later time has also come to be used for ascetic practices.

In 2000, when Professor Mitsutani was head of the Excavation Techniques section of the Nara Cultural Properties Research Institute, he began surveys on the tree rings on wooden elements taken from the Zen Hall as part of repairs in the 1940s, and found pieces which showed that they were from a tree felled around 582. Seeing that elements from the same period were still in use, in 2007, he used a digital camera to capture images of the tree rings evident in elements on the underside of the roof, and employed computers to analyze the images. As a result, it was determined that a number of horizontal pieces called kashiranuki, which run between the upper sections of the vertical pillars, were the oldest, dating back to 586.

The precise year in which Asuka-dera was constructed remains unclear, but according to the Nihon Shoki, trees felled in 590 were used in the construction. It appears that elements from Asuka-dera were reused in the construction of this Zen Hall. Professor Mitsutani said, “That elements from the first Buddhist temple in this country are still in use is due to the durability of cypress, and the ease with which things can be built from it. As a building symbolizing Japan’s wood culture, this Zen Hall is precious.” The underside of the Zen Hall will be open to the public from October 17 to November 13, with a limit of 160 people per day. The deadline to apply is September 17 [sorry, guys, for the short notice. -T], and applications will be handled in the order in which they are received. For details, see the Gangôji Cultural Properties Research Center website http://www.gangoji.or.jp/ [Japanese site; no English, I'm afraid].

Gangôji: The moved Asuka-dera, which was originally built by Soga no Umako (d. 626), and then rebuilt in the Nara period in Heijô-kyô, roughly 22 km to the north. It is counted as one of the seven great temples of the Southern Capital (Nara), along with Tôdaiji. The Kondô and other structures burned down in the Muromachi period, and the pagoda, Kannon Hall, and other structures burned down in the Edo period. Today, it is divided into two temples, with Gokurakubô containing the Hondô and Zen Hall, and with both drawing upon the heritage of the Kannon Hall. Gokurakubô was recognized in 1998 as a World Heritage Site, along with a number of other sites together comprising the “Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara.”

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